Part 1: How to compost at home – using container pots

By Bhavani Prakash

Of the various recycling practices that I personally follow, the most satisfying one is converting my kitchen waste into compost - a very valuable resource for my plants.  My family is often amused when I exclaim with glee at the slimy, guey, rotting vegetable and fruit waste that I collect every day and call it my precious “gold!”   When the paradigm shift comes about, we will begin to see all “waste” or “garbage” as something tremendously useful for us and the environment, and realise the tragic futility of bagging it in wasteful plastic bags for landfills or incinerators.

Composting is the process by which microrganisms break down complex organic matter, such as your household kitchen waste into simple and useful nutrients for the soil.

WHY COMPOST? Composting helps to
-  recycle kitchen and garden waste and reduce the volume of waste going to landfills and incinerators
-  convert organic matter into a valuable resource for your plants or community garden. It acts as a soil conditioner, fertiliser, a natural pesticide, an adds to humus in the soil.
-  better the health of the soils. Compost breaks up clayey soil and improves their structure. In case of sandy soils, it enables water and nutrient retention. Healthier soils make for healthier plants
-  mulch when used to cover soil and deter the growth of weeds
-  even make some money, if there is a market for compost in your area

If you google for “how to compost”  the net will no doubt throw may different ways. Some websites recommend buying tumblers and special bins.  I’d like to share  a very simple method which works well for me, using resources I already have at home. Once you understand the broad concepts, you can choose your own containers, and experiment with your kitchen waste to suit the climate where you live and the kind of waste and volume of waste you wish to recycle.  Be bold and get started! You’ll learn a lot along the way as I did, and I’m sure you’ll discover that it’s a lot simpler than it sounds.

Composting using container/flower pots and soil

Things you’ll need :

*  Used flower pot (any material such as ceramic, terracotta or plastic)
* Soil (even degraded or old soil from your garden would do- if not you can get planting soil from the nursery)
A lid ( I use old metal plates or lids as they are waterproof, but used cardboard, old thick polyethene sheets or old rags of carpet would do to cover the pots)
*  A dish to keep below the pot for indoor composting
*  Kitchen waste (which we’ll talk about in “What to compost and What not to compost” )

1. Take any used flower pot with holes at the bottom for drainage and aeration. Put a layer of coconut husk (or other material like cork) that decomposes more slowly at the bottom to prevent too much moisture coming out of the pot. Cover with a layer of soil about 5 cm thick.


2. Put all your kitchen waste for the day over this soil.


3. Cover the waste well with soil :


4. You can start all over again with another layer of waste the next day


5. And repeat by completely covering with another layer of soil.  This will ensure there are minimal flies and smell. As you keep layering waste and soil alternately, you will have to stir the contents once or twice a week to ensure proper aeration.


6. Always keep the pot covered with a metal lid or thick cardboard or old rags of carpet. I tend to use metal because it’s waterproof and I can control the amount of moisture in the pot better when it’s exposed to sun and rain.


You may want to keep a series of pots and label them Pot 1, Pot 2, Pot 3 and Pot 4. As the first pot fills up, you can move on to the second, third and fourth. By the time the fourth is full, you’ll find that it has been 6-8 weeks in a tropical climate and the first pot is properly composted. Temperate climates may delay composting to about 3-6 months. Check the compost that is being made in the pots and remember to stir regularly once or twice a week.

Keep a dish under the pot to collect the excess moisture that will be released. This water is precious and can be used as fertiliser for plants.  If you’re keeping the pot outdoors directly on the grass, the water will directly go to the soil and fertilise it.

Those with larger garden space can dig a hole and do the same process. Keeping the compost pit covered is a good idea to keep away pests and flies.


Air – Stir once or twice a week as required. This method is aerobic composting as it requires air.  (The other method is anaerobic composting which is done in an airtight container). Lack of oxygen can lead to unpleasant smells.  You may most likely get harmless fruit flies in the bin, which again will disappear when you cover the food waste with soil and mix and aerate well. Also, a mix of soft and hard materials in the pile will enable better air circulation.

Moisture – if the composting mixture is too wet, it will get smelly and become prone to fungus and slime. Add more browns like shredded paper or cardboard to absorb the excess moisture, which will also help to creat air pockets

Heat – The compost itself will generate heat. You may keep the pot indoors or outdoors. I get better results outdoors, as there’s more external heat which helps decompose matter faster.

It helps to chop or shred the materials into smaller pieces so the decomposition takes place faster. Materials which take longer to decompose should ideally be placed at the bottom of the pile and in moderate quantities.


PIC_0041* It smells good, like the smell of soil and rain
* It is crumbly without lumps. If lumpy, you can sieve the compost, and use the fine residue. The lumps can be thrown into the new compost pot as a starter mixture.
* It isn’t too moist and doesn’t have any fungus or moss. It isn’t too dry either.


Compost is best used as a top layer around plants. I use my compost once in 6-8 weeks when the pot is done, by applying a two inch layer on the soil bed. The compost can be used directly on a garden bed or for container plants.  I’ve not explored if there’s an expiry date to the compost as my garden is always in need of new compost.


Greens are generally the wet and live matter which decompose quickly and give the required moisture to the compost. They contain and provide the nitrogen - proteins required for the microbes to digest and thrive. Without greens, the decomposition will take much longer, and the compost will become too dry.

* Vegetable and fruit peels
* Rotting Vegetable and Fruit Scraps
* Plant cuttings/Hedge clippings
* Grass Clippings
(without the seed heads/roots)
* Tea Bags
* Coffee Grounds
* Crushed Egg Shells
* Flowers

Browns provides the carbon required for the microbes to multiply. Less carbon would make the compost smelly (due to rapidly fermenting nitrogen into ammonia), overly moist and fungus prone.

* Dried leaves
* Chopped straw and small twigs
* Shredded Paper
* Coffee Filter Paper
* Cardboard
(without the use of commercial glues like formaldehyde)
* Shredded Pizza boxes (remove the cooked food residues on the boxes to the extent possible)  * Dryer Lint
* Vacuum Cleaner Bag
(contents should be sorted)
* Dryer Lint (provided most of the clothes are natural fabric)
* Corn Cobs (chopped into small pieces)
* Used Kitchen Paper
* Kitchen and Toilet Paper cardboard rolls
* Cotton Wool
(non- contaminated)
* Sawdust
(non-chemically treated)
* Hair (not as clumps, very slow to decompose)
* Shredded cotton or wool (in small quantities)

Browns that can be composted but prefer to send for recycling

* Newspaper – The paper itself will decompose, but newspaper ink can be laden with heavy metals. So unless you are sure that the ink is non-toxic or soy based, it is better not to add to the compost, especially if you want it to be organic
* Cardboard with lot of print- such as cereal boxes are full of ink like newspapers. So make sure the inks are non-toxic. If in doubt, send for recycling
* Cotton, silk, woollen clothing – due to sheer volume, it’s better to send for recycling where it can be made reused or recycled into other items

What’s a good Greens to Brown ratio?

The general rule of thumb is equal amounts of greens and browns should be put in the compost mixture. This will roughly enable a Carbon to Nitrogen ratio of 30:1 in the final compost which is recommended by most gardeners.


Cooked foods (more on “What’s the matter with cooked foods?”  below)

Non- Biodegradable and Hazardous Waste which should not be put in the compost, but sent for recycling or for careful disposal :

* Plastics of all kind – bags, bottles, cling film, wrappers
* Drink cartons
(as they are layered with plastic or tin foil)
* Styrofoam
* Glass, Porcelein, Ceramic
* Glossy paper, magazines (
tend to have high chemical content in the inks and laminations)
* Metal including cans and foil paper and wrappers
* Leather (
as they are treated with toxic chemicals)
* Rubber
* Cigarette butts
* e-waste
* Electrical items – bulbs, tube lights, batteries
* Oil waste – cooking oils, fats as in butter, margarine and fuel
* Wood
( is usually chemically treaded and will add heavy metal content to the soil)
* Paints

What’s the matter with cooked food?

You may ask, doesn’t cooked food biodegrade? Yes it does but it is likely to cause problems in the compost. For one, it can smell really bad when the food starts decomposing, especially if you add meat or fish. It may also attract vermins and pests.

However, by using the right composting system (such as one that we will show in Part 2 of this blogpost) you should be able to compost cooked food as well. You may also use the above flower pots method, but you will have to use some kind of culture to accelerate the decomposition of cooked foods so one can avoid smells.

How to make or get accelerators or Biocultures?

Biocultures are not required with the above method, but with cooked foods it is necessary to accelerate the decomposition.

1. You could ask for “Bokashi” at the nursery. Bokashi is a bran containing yeast, fungi and bacteria which ferments cooked food, especially meat and fish in a few days time, without risking pests or flies. Here’s an E-how instruction showing how to make some at home.

2. Another Bio culture recipe that can be made at home is E-how’s How to make active compost microbes (using rice wash and milk to obtain lactobaccillus serum)

3. I have seen organic farmers in India use diluted cow dung (5% dilution in water) over their compost for a similar purpose.

I’ve yet to try these three methods mentioned above for cooked food. If you have had some success with composting cooked foods, do share them with us.

Hope to hear from you about your experiences, comments and queries on the topic. Wish you success in the journey of turning kitchen garbage into riches for your garden! Happy composting!


Credits: I learnt this method of composting from the article by Zhou Miao-Fei in the Singapore newletter “Lapis News” July-September 2009 edition as translated from Mandarin into English by my friend, Ruyu Gan, a permaculturist.

Further links:

For the many benefits of composting, here’s a very informative article from Permaculture Research Institute of Australia entitled, Compost Miracles which has found that “Compost microorganisms not only convert organic material into humus, but they also degrade toxic chemicals into simpler, benign, organic molecules. These chemicals include gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel, oil, grease, wood preservatives, PCBs, coal gasification wastes, refinery wastes, insecticides, herbicides, TNT, and other explosives.”

This is heartening to read, but would suggest avoiding this in your home compost!! Nevertheless, a very insightful piece.

Read Excerpts from a wonderful book called “The Rodale Book of Composting

EWTT: Part 2: How to compost at home: Using the Daily Dump


EWTT: Poonam Bir Kasturi: Designing the Daily Dump


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Posted by on Jul 21 2010. Filed under Composting. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0. You can leave a response or trackback to this entry

36 Comments for “Part 1: How to compost at home – using container pots”

  1. [...] A Taxi Driver To Commemorate Racial Harmony Day – AWARE: The Power of Breasts – EcoWalktheTalk: Part 1: How to compost at home – using container pots [Thanks Bhavani] – Loyalty is Orange: The Orenji Headlines: Bye bye Onemanga, Hello [...]

  2. Revathi Subramanian

    Hi Bhavani,
    The low tech composting I have been doing for about 9 years now is to dig up the soil in the garden and bury garden waste and keep rotating that. It works very well when you have a little garden to grow veggies in (may not apply to Singapore). The nice surprise you get in this method is the unexpected potato or other plants that start growing :-)

  3. That works well Revathi with a little bit of outdoor garden space (and I’ve mentioned it briefly as well in the article). Even with a pot one may get surprises..my pumpkins and indian pennyworts are growing from the compost!

  4. Thanks a lot , I was exactly looking for this. i’ll do it & let u know the result

  5. Lovely article Bhavani – Thanks!

  6. Thanks Preethi…let me know when you start composting!

  7. [...] away a lot of vegetable or fruit peels. There are a many different composting guides out there, but Eco Walk The Talk is the most appropriate for this blog. They will give you a good break down of the science behind [...]

  8. can i keep the pot for composting inside the kitchen?Does it smell?Is it hygiene to keep the pot inside the kitchen?

  9. Yes of course you can keep it inside the kitchen. It won’t smell if you cover the peels with cardboard paper pieces and/or soil or sawdust. You need to turn it over every few days. Balance the moisture well…if it is too wet, then add more soil/browns and if it is too dry..then spray a little water or add more greens. Trust the process..and be bold and try it out. If you have specific issues…leave a comment here and we’ll get back to you.

  10. thank you!

  11. Great article, It will surely help those who want make it by themselves at home.

  12. It was really nice to come across your article.. I have made up my mind to start composting on my terrace and was doing my research…. I am considering to compost in a pot (matka) which I will buy from the Bangalore road sides… just one question I have is, when it rains is it enough if the compost bin is closed with a earthernware lid? does seepage of rain water spoil the process?
    Also my terrace is very sunny, i hope that is ok?


  13. Hi Soumya,

    Thanks for your comments for taking the first steps to start!! You don’t have to worry about rainwater seeping through. The beauty of composting is that you can always adjust the process. Check from time to time – if the compost is too wet, add some browns like pieces of cardboard or newspaper bits or dried leaves to soak up the extra moisture; if the compost is too dry, then add more green waste like veggie and fruit peels. If it smells too much, it probably means there’s not enough air circulation, so give it a good stir.

    Hope this helps! Have fun and feel free to share how you’re getting on with it.

  14. hi,
    i started the procedure of composting.I am using red soil for composting and the soil is getting too hard and dried.Do i need to maintain the moisture after the fill up of the
    pot?first pot was good and dry and i didn’t find any flies around it,but the second pot(I made bit wet) was surrounded by small insects(flies).how can i prevent them?

    thank you

  15. [...] away a lot of vegetable or fruit peels. There are a many different composting guides out there, but Eco Walk The Talk is the most appropriate for this blog. They will give you a good break down of the science behind [...]

  16. Thank you for the how to guide, very useful! I’ve started to compost using a plastic bucket in my kitchen!

  17. Thanks for the information you shared. I found this site explaining the procedure in the simplest form. I have all the waste containing Greens. For the proportion of Greens & Browns, can I add just dried leaves of equal amount in this waste? Looking fwd to start this ASAP .

  18. Thanks Pooja, sure you can just use any browns you wish. If you wish to add only dry leaves, that’s fine. Hope this helps :)

  19. thanks for t article… i am about to build a house and i ve already planned for a compost area in my backyard……. yours is a very easy method to compost wastes thanks n once when i start composting my kitchen wastes ill let you know t results thanks again bhaavs!

  20. That sounds really nice, Radha. Let us know how you progress with the composting :)

  21. Hi! My daughter is doing pot composting with vegetable and fruit waste for her school project. She also adds some amount of dry cowdung (ofcourse with a lot of fuss) to enhance the process of composting. In about 5 weeks time she has managed to get some good compost, ofcourse some recently added peels are still visible.

  22. That’s nice to hear Maneesha. If you can see some peels, then it means the compost is not fully ready. I like to separate my waste into those peels that decompose faster, and allocate another pot for those peels that tend to take a bit longer, so that I can give the latter more time for composting. Glad to hear that your daughter is spreading the idea at school.

  23. [...] All veggie and fruit peel waste, coffee grinds, tea leaves, paper with not too much print on it, dried leaves, yard waste, cardboard boxes, tissue rolls (the brown cylinder inside). I’ve added what to include and what to avoid here. [...]

  24. I have started composting. I am seeing lots of maggots in it. Initially I put cow dung as a starter. Extra water (liquid) is drained through the holes I have made in the container. I don’t add any brown material. Is it OK and should I? Will you pl. tell me how long should I keep this in the same wet condition.

  25. Hi Sundar,

    It is important to put the browns for two reasons. One, to absorb the excess moisture (which will help with the reduction of maggots too). Two, to provide carbon in the final compost mix. Too much moisture will interfere with the composting process, as much as too little moisture. So go ahead and add some cardboard pieces (which works really fast to soak in the moisture) as well as dried leaves.

    Hope this helps!

  26. Shirley Brower

    I’m delighted to find your information. I had thought it would not be practical for me to have a compost pile, considering my yard, etc., but recently got the idea about using a flower pot and going at it on a modest basis. Your article gives me just the encouragement and info I need!!

  27. Such a great article and i have also start to composting kitchen garbage and i m feeling proud for doing such great thing for save earth ..go green reduce reuse recycle…..

  28. Shirley Brower

    I have just started this process and would like to clarify a couple of points. First, please confirm that equal parts of GREENS and BROWNS should be added every time there is an addition to the compost pot. Second, please confirm that a layer of soil should be added every time greens and browns are added. Thank you for your help!

  29. Very helpful info, now I can do my own compost at home. Thanks for the guidance.

  30. Ranjini Anandanathan


    Can you tell us how to make organic pesticides out of easy available products? My plants are getting attacked by bugs. thanks

  31. Dear all
    If we start composting, we will not have garbage on the streets we need to recycle only glass and plastic if Munipality gives us separate bins we can put these things in. Good work.
    Take care Arun

  32. Hi Bhavani,

    I am really intent on composting as most of my daily waste is fruit and vegetable peel. My only problem is this – I live in a city where temperature rapidly starts dropping from October onward and we could be at -30 deg C in Jan and it starts coming to above 0 only in March-April. So I have decided to keep a pot in the kitchen to compost (we maintain indoor temperatures of around 24 deg C). But if our lawn is snow covered, what do I with all the compost? Will it stay for 4 to 6 months for me to apply to the lawn in April just in time for Spring? or will the compost be wasted by then? Thank you!

  33. Hi Bhavani:
    Very nice and easy to understand article. I have been trying to compost my kitchen waste but getting a little frustrated because there is a foul garbage dump like stink. Here is what I have done:
    1. taken a old plastic bin and drilled a few holes. A hole at the bottom also.
    2. I have been putting in kitchen waste (no meat or milk products or cooked food. Just the egg shells and discards from vegetables when chopping)
    3. Mixed this with dry leaves, newspaper and even coconut fibre.
    4. Have turned this mixture from time to time.
    Every time I put in kitchen waste I put a good layer of browns. However, I am continuing to get a foul decomposing stink and a thick blackish liquid underneath the bin. Inside the bin it is pretty hot and I can see maggots crawling about. And this mixture now has become very dense and I am unable to aerate it manually.
    Where am I going wrong?

  34. M. S. Venkatesh Prasad

    Good Evening,
    A very useful article. I have started following the procedure set here. I have bought a plastic drum of 120 litres and 1/4 inch plastic tap. Fixed a tap at the bottom all by myself (heat a rod and puncher the drum). Put some coconut fibre at the bottom. Started the process. Purchased cocopeet, Microbes and Neem powder from Daily Dumps. Let me see how it goes.
    Thanks once again.
    kind regards
    Venkatesh Prasad, Bikasipura Mitrara Balaga

  35. […] The most incredible thing about the garden is the way matter can be recycled endlessly. We compost our fruit and veggie peel waste, as well as some of our brown leaves from the garden, and all this transform almost miraculously in a few months into rich compost that goes back into the garden to stimulate microorganisms in the soil. For me this is such a marvellous way to understand the circle of life, and to be able to close the loop instead of throwing garbage into a plastic bag and sending it down the chute to an incinerator. Link: http://www.ecowalkthetalk.com/blog/2010/07/21/part-1-how-to-compost-at-home-using-container-pots/ […]

  36. I love this article! I am a gardener beginner and I read everything connected with the plants. I use as a compost usually old carrots and lettuce. I had no idea that I can use so many different fruit and veggies. My veggie garden will be glad! Thank you a lot! There would be not a single fruit in my garbage!

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